Deep Sea Mollusks
are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around
93,000 documented extant group within this phylum.Molluscs are
a highly diverse group, in size, in anatomical structure, in
behaviour and in habitat. Representatives of the phylum live
in a wide range of environments including marine, freshwater,
and terrestrial biotopes.
The phylum Mollusca is characteristically
divided into nine or ten taxonomic classes, of which two are
completely extinct. Cephalopod molluscs such as squid, cuttlefish
and octopus are among the most neurologically-advanced of
all invertebrates – and either the giant squid or the
colossal squid is the largest known invertebrate species.
The gastropods (snails and slugs) are by far the most numerous
molluscs in terms of classified species, and account for 80%
of the total.
Abalone is medium-sized
to very large edible sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks
in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis.Common names
for abalones also include ear-shells, sea-ears and Venus's-ears,
as well as muttonfish or muttonshells in Australia, ormer
in Jersey and Guernsey, perlemoen in South Africa and paua
in New Zealand.
The shells of abalones have a low and open spiral structure,
and are characterized by several respiratory holes in a row
near the shell's outer edge. The thick inner layer of the
shell is composed of nacre or mother-of-pearl, which in many
species is highly glistening, giving rise to a choice of strong
and changeable colors, which make the shells gorgeous to humans
as attractive objects, and as a source of colorful mother-of-pearl.
individual rounded shells of cockles are symmetrical, and
are heart-shaped when viewed from the end. In most but not
all genera there are numerous radial ribs. For an exception,
see the genus Laevicardium, the egg cockles, which have very
smooth shells. Empty cockle shell on the beach. The wrapper
has three apertures (inhalant, exhalant, and pedal) for siphoning
water and for the foot to bulge. Cockles classically tunnel
using the foot, and feed by filtering plankton from the neighboring
water. Cockles are accomplished of 'jumping' by circuitous
and straightening the foot. Like many bivalves, cockles are
hermaphroditic and some species reach maturity quickly.
conch is one of a number of special type of medium-sized to
great saltwater snails or their shells. True conchs are marine
gastropod mollusks in the family Strombidae, and the genus
Strombus.The name "conch" however, is often quite
loosely applied in English-speaking countries to numerous
kinds of very large sea snail shells which are pointed at
both ends, i.e. shells which have a high spire and a noticeable
siphonal passage. Other species often called a "conch"
include the coronet conch Melongena order; the horse conch
Pleuroploca gigantea; and the sacred chank or more correctly
Shankha shell, Turbinella pyrum. None of these are in the
family Strombidae, they are all in other taxonomic families.
The true conch species within the species Strombus vary in
size from fairly small to very large. Quite a lot of of the
larger species such as Strombus gigas, the crimson conch or
queen conch, are reasonably important as food sources. Strombus
gigas is also accomplished of producing (very rarely) a pink,
gem quality pearl.
universal name mussel is used for members of numerous different
families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater
and freshwater habitats. The one thing that these different
groups have in common, is that they have a shell whose outline
is somewhat elongated and unbalanced compared with that of
many other edible clams, the shells of which are often more
or less curved or oval in shape.
The word "mussel" is most recurrently used to mean
the cooked bivalves of the nautical family Mytilidae, most
of which live on showing shores in the intertidal zone, emotionally
concerned by means of their strapping byssal threads ("beard")
to a compacted substrate. A few genus (in the genus Bathymodiolus)
have settled hydrothermal vents associated with deep ocean
In most nautical mussels the shell is longer than it is wide,
being wedge-shaped or lop-sided. The tangential color of the
covering is often dark blue, blackish, or brown, while the
interior is silvery and rather nacreous.
are characterized by their eight arms. Frequently bearing
suction cups. Octopuses have a comparatively short life expectancy,
and some species live for as little as six months. Larger
species, such as the North Pacific Giant Octopus, may live
for up to five years under suitable circumstances. However,
reproduction is a cause of death: males can only live for
a few months after mating, and females die shortly after their
eggs hatch. They neglect to eat during the (roughly) one month
period spent taking care of their unhatched eggs, but they
don't die of starvation. Endocrine secretions from the two
optic glands are the cause of genetically-programmed death
(and if these glands are surgically removed, the octopus may
live many months beyond reproduction, until she finally starves).
Octopuses are extremely
intelligent, probably more intelligent than any other order
of invertebrates. The exact extent of their cleverness and
learning capability is much debated among biologists, but
maze and problem-solving experiments have shown that they
do have both short- and long-term memory. Their short lifespan
limit the amount they can eventually learn. There has been
much speculation to the effect that almost all octopus behaviors
are autonomously learned rather than instinct-based, although
this remains largely unproven. They learn almost no behaviors
from their parents, with whom young octopuses have very little
common name oyster is used for a number of different groups
of bivalve mollusks, most of which live in marine habitats
or brackish water. The shield consists of two habitually extremely
calcified valves which surround a soft body. Gills strain
plankton from the water, and strong adductor muscles are worn
to hold the shell closed. Some types of oysters are very much
prized as food, both raw and cooked. Other types, such as
pearl oysters, are not commonly eaten.
True oysters, belonging to the family Ostreidae, are incapable
of making gem-quality pearls, although the opposite idea is
a commonly-encountered misapprehension, often seen in illustrations
or photographs where an edible oyster shell is mistakenly
paired with a gem-quality pearl.
Although Jonathan Swift is repeatedly quoted as having said,
"He was a bold man that first ate an oyster", evidence
of oyster spending goes back into prehistory, as evidenced
by oyster middens originate worldwide. Oysters were an vital
food source in all coastal areas where they could be found,
and oyster fisheries were an important industry where they
were abundant. Overfishing and heaviness from diseases and
pollution have sharply reduced supplies, but they remain a
popular pleasure, renowned in oyster festivals in many cities
and towns.Oysters are a desired among striking foods and research
now shows this shellfish to be a rich source of zinc, one
of the natural resources required for the fabrication of testosterone.
have been eaten for thousands of years, opening in the Pleistocene.
They are particularly plentiful in Capsian sites in North
Africa but are also found right through the Mediterranean
province in archaeological sites dating between 12,000 and
6,000 years ago. However, it should be noted that wild-caught
land snails that are undercooked can harbor a parasite (Angiostrongylus
cantonensis) that may cause a rare kind of meningitis. Dedicated
snail caviar is also growing in popularity in European cuisine.
Genus of land snails live in roughly every kind of habitat,
from deserts and mountains to marshes, woodland, and gardens.
However, confident species are "anthropophilic",
which means they are originating most often around human habitation.
Whichever practically bulky land snail species is most usually
seen or most usually eaten in a specified area, that species
will habitually be referred to simply as "snails"
by the local people. In many parts of the world, the reasonably
large cooked species Helix aspersa or Cornu aspersum, has
been introduced, and has become a pest in farms and gardens,
so this is perhaps a good example of a species commonly known
as "the snail".
species of squid are well-liked as food in cuisines as various
as Japanese and Italian.In English-speaking countries, squid
as food is often known by the Italian word calamari.Individual
species of squid are found plentifully in certain areas, and
supply large catches for fisheries.The body of squid can be
stuffed whole, cut into flat pieces or sliced into rings.
The arms, tentacles and ink are also fit to be eaten; in fact,
the only parts of the squid that are not eaten are its bill
and gladius (pen).
Squid are members of the class Cephalopoda, subclass Coleoidea,
order Teuthida, of which there are two major suborders, Myopsina
and Oegopsina (counting the giant squids like Architeuthis
dux). Teuthida is the largest of the cephalopod orders, edging
out the octopuses (order Octopoda) for total number of species,
with roughly 300 confidential into 29 families.