Louis Boutan is a French scientist who took the first underwater photo in 1893.He took a picture at 45 m depth of the ocean. After more experimentation he made underwater camera called as zero-pressure underwater camera. This is the world’s first underwater camera.
Experimentation of underwater camera:
In 1893 he took pictures by the zero pressure underwater cameras with the compressed air bladder. The frame size of this camera is 5×7” and the exposure time is 30 minutes. Again boutan experiment his camera for flash photography under the water. But it required oxygen; typically utilizing burning magnesium or a mixture of magnesium. At this time, one of the electrical engineers created a bulb with magnesium ribbon. The bulb was fully filled with pure oxygen and magnesium ribbon was lit using an electric current. But this experiment is failing, because the burning magnesium led makes a heavy smoke and the image becomes dim and also the bulb make lots of heat.
After the failure of first bulb, he created a new flashbulb by the help of his assistant. He used new rubber bulb that blew the magnesium powder into the alcohol lamp and all are attached in wooden barrel. After from that short period he developed more reliable, compact and adjustable camera. The size, flashes, camera boxes and lenses are more reliable. In addition to easier maneuverability of the camera, he used a system of dual carbon-arc lamps. His formula is still used today for large cameras in shallow water.